[15] The Hungarians advanced again and by the end of spring 1849, Hungary was basically cleared of foreign forces, and would have achieved independence, were it not for the Russian intervention. The first tanks purchased by the Hungarian Army were fourteen German Army Leichte Kampfwagen II (LKII) light Tanks built in 1918 at the end of World War One. évi XVI. Routledge, 2013. His great-grandson, Miklós Zrínyi, poet and general became one of the better-known strategists of the 1660s. There is a plan in the HM that the Puma IFV will also be standardized in HDF in the future (with the Leo2A7 tanks). The good soldier Å vejk and his fortunes in the World War, HaÅ¡ek, Jaroslav, 1883-1923, published … The 4cm 36.M Anti Aircraft gun (This had a 36/40.M variant which had a gun shield). In 1942, to counteract the appearance of Soviet heavy tanks and the overall Soviet armor dominance, the Hungarian Institute of Military Science (HTI) started their own anti-tank rocket development. Varusteleka offers military surplus, outdoors equipment and proper Mil-Spec tactical gear along with cheaper alternatives. In a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation. Lieutenant General Lajos Veress von Dálnoki(Dálnoki Veres Lajos) - from April 1, 1944, to October 16, … Matei, Florina Cristiana. Hungary provided airbases and support for NATO's air campaign against Serbia and has provided military units to serve in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led KFOR operation. The Toldi I A20 and B20s turret interiors were too cramped for the Solothurn to be used with it’s standard 5-round magazine so the engineers made a 4-round magazine for the Toldi. In November 1940, Hungary signed the Tripartite Pact and became a member of the Axis with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. From shop MilitarSurplusStore. Hungary bought two used Airbus A319 and two Falcon 7X transport aircraft. and IX. [22] They saw combat especially on the Eastern Front and at the Battles of the Isonzo on the Italian Front. The Germans, Szálasi, and pro-German Hungarian forces loyal to Szálasi fought on. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. http://thehonvedhungarianarmedforces.blogspot.hu/2015/02/the-hungarian-... Hungarian designer Nicolas Straussler moved to England after WW1 and estabilished his own enterprise. All procedures, disciplines, and equipment were exact copies of the Soviet Armed Forces in methods and material, but the huge costs collapsed the economy by 1956. The Honvédség was usually treated generously by the Diet in Budapest. By 19 March 1945, Soviet troops had recaptured all the territory lost during a 13-day German offensive.[26]. On 1 March 1940, Hungary organized its ground forces into three field armies. [21], Hungarian soldiers "fought with distinction" on every front contested by Austria-Hungary in the First World War. The Hungarian People's Army HPA (Hungarian: Magyar Néphadsereg) was the military of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party and the Hungarian People's Republic from 1951 to 1990. According to the contemporary sources and later speculations, the first line was formed by light cavalry archers (Battle of Oslava (1116, 1146, 1260, 1278). On 15 October 1944, the Germans launched Operation Panzerfaust and forced Horthy to abdicate. The victory was very important, because two much stronger forts of Szolnok and Temesvár had fallen quickly during the summer. Introduced in 1938, the design was utilized for painting vehicles, artillery pieces, technical equipment and for individual shelter-half/poncho combinations. Hungary sent a 300 strong, logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. 10 or 14 more aircraft of this type might follow up in the coming years. Because this light tank was based on a production vehicle the engine was in the front and the fighting c… Pro-Nazi Ferenc Szálasi was made Prime Minister by the Germans. The Royal Hungarian Army fielded the Hungarian First Army, the Hungarian Second Army, and the Hungarian Third Army. In 2019, military spending was $1.904 billion, about 1.22% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. In this form, the force approached the coming world war in most respects as a truly "national" Hungarian army. Pál Teleki, no longer being able to stop the unfolding events, committed suicide on April 3rd, 1941, and Hungary joined the war on April 11 after the proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia. ISBN: 0764318691: Book Title: Uniforms & Equipment of the Austro-Hungarian Army in World War One: A Study in Period Photographs (Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Eisenbahn, Pioneers, Air Service, Motor Corps) Two years later, this development cycle resulted in two unguided anti-tan... Had at least two versions. [21] Honvédség units (along with the Austrian Landwehr) were considered fit for front line combat service and equal to those of the joint k.u.k. Instead, the Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, made an alliance with German dictator Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról", http://www.parlament.hu/irom41/03621/03621.pdf, "2013. In early March 1945, the Germans launched the Lake Balaton Offensive with support from the Hungarians. Hungarian 40M Turán I . there is also an unknown number of modernized Hungarian-upgraded BTR-80s for technical rescue, medical rescue and NBC missions (these vehicles are entering service starting with 2009). Summary of Hungary Armed Forces hungarian Navy, Army, Air Force, Hungarian Defence Budget, Ministry of Defence, European Defence Information : Home | ... MAJOR ARMY EQUIPMENT . [citation needed][clarification needed], On 5 March 1938, Prime Minister Kálmán Darányi announced a rearmament program (the so-called Győr Programme, named after the city where it was announced to the public). Unable to re-build again, the Hungarian Second Army was disbanded towards the end of 1944. Not until the introduction of well-regulated, plate-armored knight heavy cavalry could German emperors stop the Hungarian armies. Miklós was the commander of the Hungarian First Army, but most of the First Army sided with the Germans and most of what remained of it was destroyed about 200 kilometres north of Budapest between 1 January and 16 February. Two independence wars interrupted this era, that of Prince Francis II Rákóczi between 1703 and 1711 and that of Lajos Kossuth in 1848–1849. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség. Hungary . Conscription was introduced on a national basis in 1939. [20], In the midst of trouble between the imperial government and the parliament in 1906, the Honvédség was further expanded and finally received its own artillery units. The Winter Campaign of Józef Bem and the Spring Campaign of Artúr Görgey are to this day taught at prestigious military schools around the globe, including at West Point Academy in the United States. Popular opinion grew very negative towards the Hungarian People's Army and most young men tried to avoid the draft with bogus medical excuses. Command structure on the civilian/military strategic and operational levels (, Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987 – 1988), Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania, General security surveillance mission in Kosovo, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 04:55. There is some speculation that the pattern itself was based on the Italian M1929 model. Some pro-fascist Hungarians like Szálasi retreated with the Germans into Austria and Czechoslovakia. In 2018, the armed forces had 27,800 personnel on active duty. évi XCVII. The Monarch had 11 armored trains, out of them 4 made it back to Hungary after the war. Hungarian forces deploy the Gepárd anti-materiel rifle, which is a heavy 12.7 mm portable gun. They retro-fitted it with armour plating and added a caterpillar tracked system to the wheels. | A Batthyány-kormány megalapítja a magyar honvédsereget", "1990. The Armed Forces of Hungary (Magyar Honvédség). The northern fortress of Eger was famously defended in the autumn of 1552 during the 39-day Siege of Eger against the combined force of two Ottoman armies numbering circa 120,000 men and 16 ultra-heavy siege guns. Hungarian army receives new EOD equipment. The Hungarian Defence Forces (Hungarian: Magyar Honvédség) is the national defence force of Hungary. In 1872, the Ludovika Academy officially began training cadets (and later staff officers). Both mach... http://thehonvedhungarianarmedforces.blogspot.hu/2013/04/the-development-of-hungarian-military.html, http://thehonvedhungarianarmedforces.blogspot.hu/2013/03/the-development-of-hungarian-military.html. Lieutenant General Géza Lakatos(Lakatos Géza) - from August 5, 1943, to April 1, 1944 (awarded the German Knight's Cross on May 24, 1944) 3. [27] Szálasi and many other pro-fascist Hungarians were captured and ultimately returned to Hungary's provisional government for trial. During the very last phase of the war, Fascist Hungarian forces fought in Vienna, Breslau, Küstrin, and along the Oder River.[25]. Hungarians as a national group were second only to German Austrians in their share of this burden, experiencing twenty-eight war deaths for every thousand persons.[23]. Romania . In 1686, the capital city Buda was freed from the Ottomans by an allied Christian army composed of Austrian, Hungarian, and Western European troops, each roughly one-third of the army. Jodl signed this document during a ceremony in France. During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era (1947–1989), the entire 200,000 strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons. Hungary Military Strength (2020) For 2020, Hungary is ranked 54 of 138 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review . Rheinmetall, Europe’s foremost maker of army equipment, will be cooperating with Hungary to create a joint venture and production facility in Hungary to manufacture the most modern Lynx infantry fighting vehicle. One soldier was killed in action due to a roadside bomb in Iraq. Armoured fighting vehicles includes infantry fighting vehicles, tank destroyers, armoured personnel carriers, mine-resistant ambush protected vehicles (MRAP), amphibious and reconnaissance … King Matthias favoured ancient artillery (catapults) as opposed to cannons, which were the favourite of his father, Johannes Hunyadi, former Regent of Hungary. The army was forbidden to possess tanks, heavy armor, or an air force. Hungarian troops were still in Afghanistan as of early 2005 as part of the International Security Assistance Force. [10] In 2016, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 2.0% of GDP and the number of active personnel to 37,650 by 2026. The purchase comes as Hungary works, and spends, to modernize its military, currently comprised largely of outmoded Soviet-era equipment. Eight cargo aeroplanes, thirty-six helicopters, forty-four modern combat cars and twenty-four mobile cannons are the newest equipment of the Hungarian Defence Forces which refresh their outdated and almost twenty-five years old technology which was used for fifty years. The major decisive battles of the Hungarian army were placed in the second or third lines consisted mainly of the most valuable parts of the army – in general heavy cavalry (1146, 1278, 1349). On 20 January 1945, representatives of the provisional government of Béla Miklós signed an armistice in Moscow. In the late summer of 1941, the Hungarian "Rapid Corps" (Gyorshadtest), alongside German and Romanian army groups, scored a huge success against the Soviets at the Battle of Uman. It was, by all means, a very capable force but which had little contact with the local population. On 8 May, in accordance with the wishes of the Soviet Union, the ceremony was repeated in Germany by Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel. Limited modernization, through, would happen in from the mid 1970s onward to replace older stocks of military equipment with newer ones to enable the HPA, in a small way, to honor its Warsaw Pact commitments. During the Ottoman invasion of Central Europe (between late 14th century and circa 1700) Hungarian soldiers protected fortresses and launched light cavalry attacks against the Turks (see Hungarian Hussars). [17] As the impasse threatened the political union, Emperor Franz Josef ordered a council of generals in November of the same year. But forces loyal to Szálasi still continued to fight on. Sándor Petőfi, the great Hungarian poet, went missing in action in the Battle of Segesvár, against invading Russian forces. It was to be formed around already extant imperial units, twenty battalions of infantry, ten hussar regiments, and two regiments of Székely from the Transylvanian Military Frontier. army. 7. 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; conscription ended 2006; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36. In 1… The light cavalry lost its privileged position, replaced by a feudal army formed mainly from heavy cavalry. [24] The Trianon Treaty limited the Hungarian National Army to 35,000 men and forbade conscription. During the war,the Hungarian Army adopt a more modern cartridge and adopted the standart German 7.92 mm the new rifle was the 7.92 Huzagol 43M.. A subordinate Joint Forces Command is coordinating and commanding the HDF corps. [30][31], Ancient, medieval, and early modern military, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Structure of the Hungarian Defence Forces, Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711), "1848. május 16. The pro-Communist government formed by Miklós competed with the pro-Nazi government of Ferenc Szálasi. Apr 25, 2019 Defense Minister Tibor Benkő said EOD duties remain an important part of the army’s tasks, given the large number of unexploded ordnance still being found in the country. During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era (1947–1989), the Soviet Southern Group of Forces, 200,000 strong, was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops (with nuclear weapons). Originally these vehicles were used in WW1 by Austro-Hungary. While most major military units in the capital were neutral during the fighting, thousands of rank-and-file soldiers went over to the Revolution or at least provided the revolutionaries with arms. To keep Hungary as an ally, the Germans launched Operation Margarethe and occupied Hungary in March 1944. Hungary military cutlery Spoon Knife Fork set Multitool eating untensils MilitarSurplusStore. The Hungarian tribes of Árpád vezér who came to settle in the Carpathian Basin were noted for their fearsome light cavalry, which conducted frequent raids throughout much of Western Europe (as far as present-day Spain), maintaining their military supremacy with long range and rapid-firing reflex bows. This required strong armed forces to defeat the neighbouring states and this was something Hungary could not afford. Blog. On 9 August 1919, Admiral Miklós Horthy united various anti-communist military units into an 80,000-strong National Army (Nemzeti Hadsereg). With the exception of the independent "Fast Moving Army Corps" (Gyorshadtest), all three Hungarian field armies were initially relegated to defensive and occupation duties within the regained Hungarian territories. Five Gripens (3 single-seaters and 2 two-seaters) arrived in Kecskemét on 21 March 2006, expected to be transferred to the Hungarian Air Force on March 30. As of 2016 Global Peace Index shows, Hungary is one of the world's most peaceful countries, placed 19th out of 163. Public opinion[citation needed] attributed Eger's success to the all-Hungarian garrison, as the above two forts have fallen due to treason by the foreign mercenaries manning them. Fast worldwide shipping. "Defense Reform in Hungary: A Decade of Strenuous Efforts and Missed Opportunities." Hungary started the most significant armament for Hungarian Defence Forces – Photos & Video. In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest, upon leaving, the Romanian army took substantial compensation for reparations. The HPA was divided into the Ground and Air Forces. The new Hungarian leader, János Kádár, asked for all the 200,000 Soviet troops to stay, because it allowed the socialist Hungarian People's Republic to neglect its own draft-based armed forces, quickly leading to deterioration of the military. [19] By 1873 it already had over 2,800 officers and 158,000 men organized into eighty-six battalions and fifty-eight squadrons. Hungary's only option was to buy the licence of a foreign developed tank. Conscription was introduced on a national basis in 1939. During the 1930s and early 1940s, Hungary was preoccupied with the regaining the vast territories and huge amount of population lost in the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in 1920. However, in the Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919 Hungary came under occupation by the Romanian, Serbian, American, and French troops, as after four years of extensive fighting, the country lacked both the necessary manpower and equipment to fend off foreign invaders. A little more than a year later and contrasting sharply with the success at Uman, was the near total devastation of the Hungarian Second Army on banks of the Don River in December 1942 during the Battle for Stalingrad. )[18] As a result of these negotiations, on 5 December 1868, the Royal Hungarian Landwehr (Magyar Kiralyi Honvédség, or Defence Force) was established. Honvédség units engaged in manoeuvres and were organized into seven divisions in seven military districts. Experts agree that the Hungarian military needs a facelift. The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80,000 men organized into seven corps commands.[13]. Ultimately, the leaders resolved on the following solution: in addition to the joint (k.u.k.) On 28 December 1944, a provisional government under the control of the Soviet Union was formed in liberated Debrecen with Béla Miklós as its Prime Minister. The Austro-Hungarian Army (German: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. In spring 1942 Germanys need for more manpower on the Eastern Front demanded a maximum effort and the Hungarians dispatched to the front the 2nd Hungarian Army with 200,000 men, consisting of nine light infantry divisions (two instead of three infantry regiments each), and the pride of the Honved, the 1st Armoured Division with 83 Czech LT-38 ( = Panzer 38(t) ) tanks, two Toldi light tanks (Swedish, but made under licence i… After the controversial Kassa attack, elements of the Royal Hungarian Army joined the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, one week later than the start of the operation. Martinusz, Zoltan. [13] During World War II the Hungarian Second Army was destroyed on the banks of the Don River in December 1942 in the Battle of Stalingrad. An infographic video presentation of the current military equipment and the major procurement programs of the Hungarian Defence Forces. In April 1941, in order to regain territory and because of the German pressure, Hungary allowed the Wehrmacht to cross her territory in order to launch the invasion of Yugoslavia. Hungary bought the licence of the Swedish Bofors 40 mm L/60 gun and started producing it in 1936. Uniforms & Equipment of the Austro-Hungarian Army in WW1: A Study in Period Photographs by: Spencer Coil. [citation needed] The Habsburg empire then annexed Hungary. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the HDF drove Habsburg forces from the country in the Spring Campaign of 1849, but was defeated by an Austro-Russian offensive in the summer. The Royal Hungarian Army River Forces (Magyar Királyi Honvéd Folyami Erők) had two regiments in its order of battle; a Patrol Boat Regiment, and a River Security Regiment. Between 1949 and 1955 there was also a huge effort to build a big Hungarian army. The H145M provides the Hungarian Armed Forces with all of the necessary tactical and technical solutions. This offensive was almost over before it began. During the Árpáds the light cavalry based army was transformed slowly into a western-style one. The parliament refused to extend the one year mandate of the logistics unit and all troops have returned from Iraq as of mid-January 2005. This invasion was launched to reclaim a part of the Slovakian territory lost after World War I. Hungary has sent a 300 strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. -""effective range of the weapon was 1500 meters b... Hungarian gun sights of armored vehicles, WW2, Anti Air, Anti Tank, Field Guns, Howitzers and Siege Howitzers of the Royal Hungarian Army of World War 2, ©2018 by Weaponry of the Royal Hungarian Army of WW2. The Hungarian Second Army had four commanders from March 1, 1940, to November 13, 1944: 1. Hungary has the distinction of being one of very few nations to develop its own camouflage pattern during the Second World War. army, Hungary would have its own defence force, whose members would swear their oath to the King of Hungary (who was also Emperor of Austria) and the national constitution, use the Hungarian language of command, and display their own flags and insignia. In exchange for this alliance and via the First and Second Vienna Awards, Hungary received back parts of its lost territories from Yugoslavia, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. 1920-1946 Created with the intention of covering all branches of the military,and providing precise information based on historical data, on all weaponry,equipment … But, while the German forces in Hungary were generally in a state of defeat, the Germans had one more surprise for the Soviets. Hungary became a member of NATO on 12 March 1999. 4.5 out of 5 stars (1,050) 1,050 reviews $ 20.49 FREE shipping Favorite Add to MILITARY UNIFORMS PRINT 19th Century Antique lithograph … Hungary was to pay dearly during and after World War II for these temporary gains. However, there were 71 recorded clashes between the people and the army between 24 and 29 October in fifty localities; depending on the commander; these were typically either defending certain military targets from rebel attack or fighting the insurgents outright, depending on the commander. At the request of the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph,[16] the Russians invaded with a force of 190,000 soldiers – against the Honvédség's 135,000 – and decisively defeated Bem's Second Army in Transylvania, opening the path into the heart of Hungary. The Hungarian knight army had its golden age under King Louis the Great, who himself was a famed warrior and conducted successful campaigns in Italy due to family matters (his younger brother married Joanna I, Queen of Naples who murdered him later.) After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire in late 1918, the Red Army of the Hungarian communist state (Hungarian Soviet Republic) conducted successful campaigns to protect the country's borders. It was designed by the German DAC engineer Joseph Vollmer. This equipment is also in use by the Turkish and Croatian armed forces, among other armies. There were reports that Hungary would most probably replace its old UAZ 4x4 vehicles with the modern Iveco LMV types. King Matthias Corvinus maintained very modern mercenary-based royal troops, called the Black Army. Also, the fence building projects on the Southern border and recent floods have reportedly surpassed staff capacity. Franz Josef, the head of the ancient Habsburg dynasty, was recognized as both Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. However, during the Warsaw Uprising, Hungarian troops refused to participate.[25]. Under Habsburg rule, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries. Weiss Manfréd WM-21 Sólyom(falcon) light bomber and reconnaissance biplane. The ones numbered IV., VI., VII. In 2017 Hungary signed a contract to buy 20 new Airbus military helicopters and ground attack bombs for the Gripens. In 1997, Hungary spent about 123 billion HUF (560 million USD) on defence. Happy birthday, NATO! Fighting Troops of the Austro-Hungarian Army 1868-1914, James Lucas, 1987, Hippocrene Books Inc - Enumeration of recruitment districts. This list does not contain all of the aircrafts used by the Hungarian army during ww2. Not until the introduction of well-regulated, plate-armored knight heavy cavalry could German emperors stop the Hungarian armies. After the Revolution was crushed in Budapest, the Soviets took away most of the Hungarian People's Army's equipment, including dismantling the entire Hungarian Air Force, because a sizable percentage of the Army fought alongside the Hungarian revolutionaries. In April 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was established. The 8 mm machine gun of the Toldi I light tank also used this sight if operated separately from the main gun. On 2 February 1945, the strength of the Royal Hungarian Army was 214,465 men, but about 50,000 of these had been formed into unarmed labor battalions. Usually, they started the battle followed by a planned retreat (1116, 1146), Battle of Kressenbrunn (1260). Three years later in 1959, the Soviets began helping rebuild the Hungarian People's Army and resupplying them with new arms and equipment as well as rebuilding the Hungarian Air Force. The Hungarian field armies were drawn up into an articulated formation (as it happened in Battle of Przemyśl (1099), Battle at Leitha (1146), Battle of Morvamező (1278), (1349), in three main battle (formation) (1146, 1278, 1349). 219–231. Officially, Soviet operations in Hungary ended on 4 April 1945 when the last German troops were expelled. In 2016, the Hungarian military has about 700 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including 100 HDF troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan, 210 Hungarian soldiers in Kosovo under command of KFOR, and 160 troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 1566 Battle of Szigetvár, Miklós Zrínyi defended Szigetvár for 30 days against the largest Ottoman army ever seen up to that day[citation needed], and died leading his remaining few soldiers on a final suicide charge to become one of the best known national heroes. Satisfied that Hungary was stable and firmly committed once again to the Warsaw Pact, the Soviets offered the Hungarians a choice of withdrawal for all Soviet troops in the country. Out of the eight million men mobilized by Austria-Hungary, over one million died. In late 1944, as part of Panzerarmee Fretter-Pico, it participated in the destruction of a Soviet mechanized group at the Battle of Debrecen. [28] When the Soviets crushed the Revolution on 4 November, the Army put up sporadic and disorganized resistance; lacking orders, many of their divisions were simply overpowered by the invading Soviets. The Hungarian Second Army (Második Magyar Hadsereg) was one of three field armies (hadsereg) raised by the Kingdom of Hungary (Magyar Királyság) which saw action during World War II.All three armies were formed on March 1, 1940. On 7 May 1945, General Alfred Jodl, the German Chief of Staff, signed the document of unconditional surrender for all German forces. Three C-17 III Globemaster transport aircraft are operating from Pápa Air Base under Hungarian nationality mark but are maintained by the NATO Heavy Airlift Wing (HAW). During 1943, the Hungarian Second Army was re-built. Large sums of money were saved that way and spent on feel-good socialist measures for the population, thus Hungary could become "the happiest barrack" in the Soviet Bloc. In early 2015, Hungary and Sweden extended the lease-program for another 10 years with a total of 32,000 flight-hours (95% increase) for only a 45% increase in cost. 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